About Mississippi River SFWA


The Mississippi River Area has a rich history. Evidence of millions of years of geological change can be seen throughout, including 4,000 - 5,000 feet of sedimentary rock. The bluffs between Alton and Grafton are only a tiny fraction of the thousands of feet of rock extending below the surface.

The Ice Age saw the advancement and regression of four glaciers. The last glacier, the Wisconsin, did not enter the area, but the melting ice widened the river valleys and contributed silt, sand and gravels to the two river systems. The melding of two such major river systems strongly influenced both ancient and modern man.

Archeologists have identified four cultural periods within the Upper Mississippi River Valley. They are: Paleo (prior to 5000 B.C.); Eastern Archaic (5000 to 1000 B.C.); Woodland (2000 B.C. to 1400 A.D.), and the Mississippian (800 to 1700 A.D.). The Mississippian was strongly influenced by the Woodland Culture as evidenced by large populated sites, intensive agriculture and religious cults.

Europeans began exploring the area in the mid-18th century. By 1824, the importance of the Mississippi River as a trade and transportation route had been established, and Congress appropriated $75,000 to remove dead trees (snags) from the river.

Congress appropriated funds in 1907 to create a 6-foot navigation channel, but existing technology was not adequate. The 1927 River and Harbors Act authorized study of the Mississippi between Minneapolis and the Missouri River. The outcome of this study was a 1930 authorization to build 24 low-head dams with locks between Minneapolis and Alton.

In 1944, Congress approved the Flood Control Act, which authorized the development of recreational facilities on public access areas. The Fish and Wildlife Act of 1946 provided for establishment of a General Plan and Cooperative Agreement to use the navigation channel project lands and waters for fish and wildlife conservation and management.

The majority of MRA lands and waters are referred to as General Plan lands, under management by the state of Illinois in accordance with a 1961 General Plan and 1963 cooperative agreement with the Department of the Interior. These lands are managed as fish and wildlife areas, while day use and access are under a separate lease agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Federal Involvement

In 1937, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, better known as the Pittman-Robertson Act, imposed an 11 percent manufacturer's tax on sporting arms and ammunition, which is used to fund wildlife restoration and management activities. The Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act, known as the Dingell-Johnson Act, was passed in 1950 and created a 10 percent manufacturer's tax on fishing tackle, which is used to fund fish restoration and management efforts. The MRA has participated in these federal programs since 1958.