Kingdom: Animalia - Animals are multicellular organisms that rely on other organisms for nourishment. There cells do not have cell walls. Most animals are capable of movement at least in some portion of their life cycle. Reproduction is generally sexual, but in some animals asexual reproduction may be utilized at certain times.
Phylum: Chordata - The Phylum Chordata contains the vertebrate animals. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes are included in this phylum. These animals have a notochord at some point in their development. They have a tubular nerve cord along the back. Gill slits and a tail are present at some point in their life cycle. They have an internal skeleton.
Class: Cephalaspidomorphi - (Lampreys) These fishes do not have jaws. They do not have paired fins. The body is cylindrical and has a cartilage skeleton.
Order: Petromyzontiformes - The lampreys have teeth on both the tongue and the oral disc. They have seven gills. They have one or two dorsal fins.
Family Petromyzontidae - Lamprey Family
Actinopterygii - (Ray-finned Fishes) The bony fishes have a skeleton made of bone. All of the gill openings are covered by one flap. The pectoral and pelvic fins are paired. They are found in both fresh and salt water.
Order: Acipenseriformes - The sturgeons and paddlefishes have a skeleton that is maily made of cartilage. The upper lobe on the tail is longer than the lower lobe. They have a spiral valve in the intestine, and a notochord that is present throughout their life.
Family Acipenseridae - Sturgeon Family
Family Polyodontidae - Paddlefish Family
Order: Lepisosteiformes - The gars have a cylindrical body that is covered with diamond-shaped scales. The long snout has sharp teeth. The dorsal and anal fins are placed near the tail. The swim bladder may be used for breathing when the amount of dssilved oxygen in the water decreases significantly.
Family Lepisosteidae - Gar Family
Order: Amiiformes - The bowfin has round scales. Its tail appears to be of equal size in the upper and lower regions. It has a bony plate under the lower jaws.
Family Amiidae - Bowfin Family
Order: Hiodontiformes - This group of freshwater fishes has teeth on the tongue and roof of the mouth and fewer than 16 rays in the tail fin. Members of this group are found in North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Only two species, the mooneye and the goldeneye, are found in North America.
Family Hiodontidae - Mooneye Family
Order: Anguilliformes - Eels may be found in fresh and salt water. The head is wedge-shaped and has a hard mouth. There are no pelvic fins on the long, thin body.
Family Anguillidae - Freshwater Eel Family
Order: Clupeiformes - The herrings and shads live near the water's surface and eat plankton. They have silvery scales. The body is flattened side to side. The swim bladder is connected to the inner ear and thus increases the ability of these fishes to hear sounds.
Family Clupeidae - Herring Family
Order: Cypriniformes - The minnows, suckers and others make up this very large order of fishes. They have a chain of bones that connects to the swim bladder to the inner ear which aids the fish in hearing. The pelvic fins are located on the belly of the fish. Most are small in size. Maturity is reached quickly.
Family Catostomidae - Sucker Family
Family Cyprinidae - Barb and Carp Family
Family Xenocyprididae - Sharpbelly Family
Family Leuciscidae - Minnow Family
Family Cobitidae - Loach Family [nonnative]
Family Characidae - Characin Family [nonnative]
Family Ictaluridae - Bullhead Catfish Family
Family Esocidae - Pike Family
Order: Salmoniformes - Most members of this group have an adipose fin on the back near the tail fin. The pelvic fins are located on the belly. The scales are large and round.
Family Umbridae - Mudminnow Family
Family Osmeridae - Smelt Family [nonnative]
Family Salmonidae - Salmon Family
Order: Percopsiformes - These small, North American fishes include the trout-perches, cavefishes and pirate perch. If pelvic fins are present, they are placed very close to the pectoral fins. Spines in fins are not well-developed. Scales are ctenoid (rough-edged) or cycloid (smooth-edged).
Family Percopsidae - Trout-Perch Family
Family Aphredoderidae - Pirate Perch Family
Family Amblyopsidae - Cavefish Family
Order: Gadiformes - The codfishes and hakes have an elongated body with long dorsal and anal fins. The scales are small and round. Barbels are usually present near the mouth.
Family Gadidae - Codfish Family
Family Fundulidae - Topminnow Family
Family Poeciliidae - Livebearer Family
Family Mugilidae - Mullet Family [nonnative]
Order: Atheriniformes - These fishes live near the surface of the water body. The mouth is upturned at the end of the flattened head. The dorsal fin is located near the tail. The pelvis fins are absent on some species. The lateral line tends to be developed on the head but absent from the rest of the body.
Family Atherinopsidae - Silverside Family
Order: Gasterosteiformes - The fishes in this order include seahorses, pipefishes and sticklebacks.
Family Gasterosteidae - Stickleback Family
Order: Scorpaeniformes - These bottom-dwelling fishes may be found in both marine and freshwater environments. They have large, rounded pectoral fins, a big head, a round tail fin and spines and/or bony plates on the head and body. This order includes sculpins, rockfishes and many other species.
Family Cottidae - Sculpin Family
Order: Perciformes - These fishes have a deep body, two dorsal fins and a large mouth. Most are active during the day.
Family Moronidae - Temperate Bass Family
Family Centrarchidae - Sunfish Family
Family Elassomatidae - Pygmy Sunfish Family
Family Percidae - Perch Family
Family Sciaenidae - Drum Family
Family Cichlidae - Cichlid Family [nonnative]
Family Gobiidae - Goby Family [nonnative]